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Gymnema Sylvestre - Medicinal Usage

 

Gymnema Sylvestre in English Medicine:

Gymnema for glycosuria
Gymnemic acid for weight control
Gymnemic acid controls glucose molecules
Gymnemic acid controls taste buds
Gymnemic acid controls surface of intestines
Gymnema for people predisposed to diabetes
Gymnema for athletes needing to develop lean muscle
Gymnema acts as a substitute for chromium
Gymnema acts for the hormone insulin
Gymnema regulates metabolism of protein
Gymnema regulates fats
Gymnema regulatesd carbohydrates
Gymnema increase HDL levels

Gymnema Sylvestre in Ayervedic Medicine:

Gymnema Ayurvedic herbal for diabetes
Gymnema ayurvedic nutrient for blood sugar
Gymnema ayurvedic for blood sugar
Gymnema ayurvedic natural herb nutrient for diabetes mellitus

Gymnema Research Abstracts

Effects of a natural extract of (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX) and a combination of HCA-SX plus niacin-bound chromium and Gymnema sylvestre extract on weight loss.
Diabetes Obes Metab. 2004 May;6(3):171-80.


Preuss HG, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Rao CV, Dey DK, Satyanarayana S.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University Medical Center, Georgetown, Washington, DC 20057, USA. preusshg@georgetown.edu

AIM: The efficacy of optimal doses of highly bioavailable (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA-SX)alone and in combination with niacin-bound chromium (NBC) and a standardized Gymnema sylvestre extract (GSE) on weight loss in moderately obese subjects was evaluated by monitoring changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), appetite, lipid profiles, serum leptin and excretion of urinary fat metabolites. HCA-SX has been shown to reduce appetite, inhibit fat synthesis and decrease body weight without stimulating the central nervous system. NBC has demonstrated its ability to maintain healthy insulin levels, while GSE has been shown to regulate weight loss and blood sugar levels. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human study was conducted in Elluru, India for 8 weeks in 60 moderately obese subjects (ages 21-50, BMI >26 kg/m(2)). Subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Group A was administered HCA-SX 4667 mg, group B was administered a combination of HCA-SX 4667 mg, NBC 4 mg and GSE 400 mg, while group C was given placebo daily in three equally divided doses 30-60 min before meals. All subjects received a 2000 kcal diet/day and participated in supervised walking. RESULTS: At the end of 8 weeks, body weight and BMI decreased by 5-6% in both groups A and B. Food intake, total cholesterol, low-density lipoproteins, triglycerides and serum leptin levels were significantly reduced in both groups, while high-density lipoprotein levels and excretion of urinary fat metabolites increased in both groups. A marginal or non-significant effect was observed in all parameters in group C. CONCLUSION: The present study shows that optimal doses of HCA-SX and, to a greater degree, the combination of HCA-SX, NBC and GSE can serve as an effective and safe weight-loss formula that can facilitate a reduction in excess body weight and BMI, while promoting healthy blood lipid levels.


Antihyperglycemic effects of gymnemic acid IV, a compound derived from Gymnema sylvestre leaves in streptozotocin-diabetic mice.

J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2000;2(4):321-7.

Sugihara Y, Nojima H, Matsuda H, Murakami T, Yoshikawa M, Kimura I.

Department of Chemical Pharmacology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Sugitani, Japan.

We investigated the antihyperglycemic action of a crude saponin fraction and five triterpene glycosides (gymnemic acids I-IV and gymnemasaponin V) derived from the methanol extract of leaves of Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. The saponin fraction (60mg/kg) reduced blood glucose levels 2 4h after the intraperitoneal administration. Gymnemic acid IV, not the other 4 glycosides at doses of 3.4-13.4mg/kg reduced the blood glucose levels by 13.5-60.0% 6h after the administration comparable to the potency of glibenclamide, and did not change the blood glucose levels of normal mice. Gymnemic acid IV at 13.4 mg/kg increased plasma insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice. Gymnemic acid IV (1 mg/mL) did not inhibit alpha-glycosidase activity in the brush border membrane vesicles of normal rat small intestines. These results indicate that insulin-releasing action of gymnemic acid IV may contribute to the antihyperglycemic effect by the leaves of G. sylvestre. Gymnemic acid IV may be an anti-obese and antihyperglycemic pro-drug.

Inhibitory effect of gymnemic acid on intestinal absorption of oleic acid in rats.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998 Oct-Nov;76(10-11):1017-23

Wang LF, Luo H, Miyoshi M, Imoto T, Hiji Y, Sasaki T.
Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, Yonago, Japan.

Gymnemic acid, a mixture of triterpene glycosides extracted from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, is known to inhibit the intestinal absorption of glucose in human and rats. This work examined the effect of gymnemic acid on oleic acid absorption by the method of intestinal perfusion in rats. The results showed the following. (i) Gymnemic acid potently inhibited the absorption of oleic acid in intestine. (ii) This inhibition was dose dependent and reversible. (iii) The extent of inhibition and the recovery progress were extremely similar to that of glucose absorption. (iv) Taurocholate did not affect the inhibitory effect of gymnemic acid on oleic acid absorption, but lowering its concentration facilitated the recovery from the inhibition. (v) The absorption of oleic acid was not affected by other glycosides such as phloridzin, stevioside, and glycyrrhizin. These new findings are important for understanding the roles of gymnemic acid in therapy of diabetes mellitus and obesity.

Antidiabetic effect of a leaf extract from Gymnema sylvestre in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus patients.J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct;30(3):295-300.

Baskaran K, Kizar Ahamath B, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Shanmugasundaram ER.
Department of Biochemistry, Postgraduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences Madras, India.

The effectiveness of GS4, an extract from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, in controlling hyperglycaemia was investigated in 22 Type 2 diabetic patients on conventional oral anti-hyperglycaemic agents. GS4 (400 mg/day) was administered for 18-20 months as a supplement to the conventional oral drugs. During GS4 supplementation, the patients showed a significant reduction in blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and glycosylated plasma proteins, and conventional drug dosage could be decreased. Five of the 22 diabetic patients were able to discontinue their conventional drug and maintain their blood glucose homeostasis with GS4 alone. These data suggest that the beta cells may be regenerated/repaired in Type 2 diabetic patients on GS4 supplementation. This is supported by the appearance of raised insulin levels in the serum of patients after GS4 supplementation.

Use of Gymnema sylvestre leaf extract in the control of blood glucose in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.J Ethnopharmacol. 1990 Oct;30(3):281-94.

Shanmugasundaram ER, Rajeswari G, Baskaran K, Rajesh Kumar BR, Radha Shanmugasundaram K, Kizar Ahmath B.
Department of Biochemistry, University of Madras, India.

GS4, a water-soluble extract of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre, was administered (400 mg/day) to 27 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) on insulin therapy. Insulin requirements came down together with fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycosylated plasma protein levels. While serum lipids returned to near normal levels with GS4 therapy, glycosylated haemoglobin and glycosylated plasma protein levels remained higher than controls. IDDM patients on insulin therapy only showed no significant reduction in serum lipids, HbA1c or glycosylated plasma proteins when followed up after 10-12 months. GS4 therapy appears to enhance endogenous insulin, possibly by regeneration/revitalisation of the residual beta cells in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Effect of Gymnema sylvestre, R.Br. on glucose homeostasis in rats.
Okabayashi Y, Tani S, Fujisawa T, Koide M, Hasegawa H, Nakamura T, Fujii M, Otsuki M.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1990 May-Jun;9(2):143-8.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Kobe University School of Medicine, Japan.

Effect of Gymnema sylvestre, R.Br. (G. sylvestre; GS4) on glucose homeostasis was studied in rats. In the first set of experiments, the acute effect of GS4 was examined in both non-diabetic and streptozocin (30 mg/kg)-induced mildly diabetic rats. Administration of 1 g/kg body weight of GS4 to 18-h fasted non-diabetic rats significantly attenuated the serum glucose response to oral administration of 1 g/kg glucose. The immunoreactive insulin (IRI) response in GS4-administered rats was lower, but not significantly, than that in control rats. In mildly diabetic rats, a 60 min increment in serum glucose concentrations was significantly reduced by GS4 administration. No IRI response was observed in these diabetic rats irrespective of GS4 administration. In the second set of experiments, the chronic effect of GS4 was examined in mildly diabetic rats. Two weeks after the induction of diabetes, the rats were divided into two groups that had similar impairment of glucose tolerance assessed by an oral glucose loading test. The rats were fed for 32-35 days with either a control diet or a diet supplemented with GS4. After 4 weeks, GS4 showed a tendency to reduce the serum glucose concentrations in the fed state and to improve the glucose tolerance. Gain in body weight, food intake, pancreas weight and the pancreatic contents of IRI, protein, amylase and trypsinogen were unaltered in the GS4-treated group compared with the control. These results suggest the usefulness of G. sylvestre in the treatment of certain classes of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.


Enzyme changes and glucose utilisation in diabetic rabbits: the effect of Gymnema sylvestre, R.Br.
J Ethnopharmacol. 1983 Mar;7(2):205-34.

Shanmugasundaram KR, Panneerselvam C, Samudram P, Shanmugasundaram ER.

The administration of the dried leaf powder of Gymnema sylvestre regulates the blood sugar levels in alloxan diabetic rabbits. G. sylvestre therapy not only produced blood glucose homeostasis but also increased the activities of the enzymes affording the utilisation of glucose by insulin dependent pathways: it controlled phosphorylase levels, gluconeogenic enzymes and sorbitol dehydrogenase. The uptake and incorporation of [14C] glucose into the glycogen and protein are increased in the liver, kidney and muscle in G. sylvestre administered diabetic animals when compared to the untreated diabetic animals. Pathological changes initiated in the liver during the hyperglycemic phase are reversed by controlling hyperglycemia by G. sylvestre. G. sylvestre, a herb used for the control of diabetes mellitus in several parts of India, appears to correct the metabolic derangements in diabetic rabbit liver, kidney and muscle.

 

 

 

      

How we process Gymnema?

Gymnema - chemical components

Gymnema Sylvestre

 

 

           

 
 
 
 
                                            

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